Allegheny Monkeyflower

Allegheny Monkeyflower Mimulus ringens   Description: Pairs of snapdragon-like flowers Propagation: Seeds or divisions Initial bloom (month and week): June W3 Garden name: Rain Garden Color of flower: Blue Height: 12″ Spread: 12″ Family: Scrophulariaceae Soil type: Acidic loam Soil moisture: Moist to wet Light: Part shade to shade Zone: 3-9

Allegheny Spurge

Allegheny Spurge Pachysandra procumbens Description: A groundcover that blooms with fragrant, white, bottlebrush-shaped flowers in the spring. Propagation: Division or cuttings Initial bloom (month and week): April W4 Garden name: Shady Woodland Garden Color of flower: White Height:  10″ Spread: 36″ Family: Buxaceae Soil pH: Acidic woodland soil Soil moisture: Moist Light: Shade Zone: 6…

Aromatic Aster

Aromatic Aster Symphyotrichum oblongifolium   Description: Short, mounds of blue flowers bloom in September and October. These plants are highly drought tolerant and grow to 18” tall. Propagation: Easy from seeds or divisions Initial bloom (month and week): September W3 Garden name: Sunny Garden Color of flower: Blue Height: 18″ Spread: 20″ Family: Asteraceae Soil…

Azure Bluet

Azure Bluet Houstonia caerulea   AR Plant Model Description: Clusters of small blue flowers on wiry stems, appearing most often along roadsides, edges of woods, and sometimes on mossy banks. Propagation: Easy from seed. Can easily pull and divide from clumps. Initial bloom (month and week): May W2 Garden name: Shady Woodland Garden Color of…

Barrens Stonecrop

Barrens Stonecrop Hylotelephium telephioides   Scientific Name: Hylotelephium telephioides Common Name: Barrens Stonecrop Description of facts and concepts: Soft pink flowers in late summer Seed or division information: Seeds or divisions Date of flower’s bloom (Month and week): October W1 Garden Name: Sunny Garden Color of Flower: Pink Height: 36″ Spread: 24″ Family: Stonecrop Soil…

Bearberry

Bearberry Arctostaphylos uva-ursi   Description: This circumpolar evergreen groundcover produces tiny flowers and red berries. Grows in very poor soil. Propagation: Root cuttings in early spring or fall Initial bloom (month and week): April W4 Garden name: Sunny Garden Color of flower: White Height: 6-12″ Spread: 3-5′ Family: Ericaceae Soil type: Acid gritty soils Soil…

Bearded Iris

Bearded Iris Iris x germanica   Description: Of hybrid origin. Once dried, the root has a violet-like scent and has historically been used to scent perfumes and potpourris. Propagation: Lift rhizomes and cut apart in July Initial bloom (month and week): May W2 Garden name: Sunny Garden Color of flower: White Height: 18″ Spread: 24″…

Bigleaf Aster

Bigleaf Aster Eurybia macrophylla   Description: Late summer starry flowers in the woodland; will form a groundcover on slopes Propagation: Division of the spreading rhizome Initial bloom (month and week): August W4 Garden name: Shady Woodland Garden Color of flower: White, pale blue Height: 1-2′ Spread: 36″ Family: Asteraceae Soil type: Sand, loam, clay average…

Bishop’s Cap

Bishop’s Cap Mitella diphylla   AR Plant Model Description: This plant is grown for its attractive leaves and its tiny, exquisite flowers. Also known as two-leaf miterwort. The seed pods resemble mitres, a type of headdress worn by bishops. Propagation: Easy from seeds. Initial bloom (month and week): April W4 Garden name: Shady Woodland Garden…

Black Cohosh

Black Cohosh Actaea racemosa   AR Plant Model Description: Tall bottlebrush flowers in summer Propagation: Move small plants in early spring, or start from seeds Initial bloom (month and week): July W1 Garden name: Shady Woodland Garden Color of flower: White Height: 5′ Spread: 24″ Family: Ranunculaceae Soil type: Acidic woods Soil moisture: Moist Light: Shade…

Blanketflower

 Blanketflower  Gaillardia aristata Description: Short lived low perennials bloom most of the summer with bright petals of red, yellow and orange. Propagation: Easy from seeds Initial bloom (month and week): June W4 Garden name: Sunny Garden Color of flower: Red, yellow Height: 8-16″ Spread: 12″ Family: Asteraceae Soil type: Sandy or gritty loam Soil moisture:…

Bleeding Heart

Bleeding Heart Dicentra eximia   Description: Attractive, fern-like foliage and hanging, heart-shaped flowers. Propagation: Seeds or divisions from the rhizome Initial bloom (month and week): May W2 Garden name: Shady Woodland Garden Color of flower: Pink Height: 12″ Spread: 16″ Family: Papaveraceae Soil type: Acidic woodland Soil moisture: Moist Light: Shade to part shade Zone:…

Bloodroot

Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis Description: One of the earliest-blooming spring wildflowers. Their white flowers open during the day and may last only 1-2 days. The bright red sap of the roots was used by Native Americans to produce dyes. Propagation: Easy to divide in early spring Initial bloom (month and week): March W4 Garden name: Shady…

Blue Flag Iris

Blue Flag Iris Iris versicolor   AR Plant Model Description: Versicolor means “variously colored” and that’s why another common name is harlequin flower. The yellow flag iris is from Europe and is an invasive species, pushing out the native flag iris. Do not plant it. Propagation: Seeds are produced in a large capsule, but easier…

Blue Mistflower

Blue Mistflower Conoclinium coelestinum Description: This plant’s fuzzy blue flowers attract butterflies in September and October. Found in old fields, meadows, and along stream banks, it can grow rapidly up to 3’ tall. Propagation: Easy from seeds or divisions Initial bloom (month and week): August W1 Garden name: Sunny Wetland Garden Color of flower: Lavender Height:…

Blue Vervain

Blue Vervain Verbena hastata Description: Candelabra spikes on tall stems Propagation: Seeds or plugs Initial bloom (month and week): July W4 Garden name: Sunny Wetland Garden Color of flower: Purple Height: 2-6′ Spread: 24″ Family: Verbenaceae Soil type: Basic Soil moisture: Medium to moist Light: Full sun Zone: 3-9

Blue Wood Aster

Blue Wood Aster Symphyotrichum cordifolium   Description: Arching flower stems hold blue daisies at the edges of woods Propagation: Not easy from seed, easy from divisions of old plants Initial bloom (month and week): September W3 Garden name: Shady Woodland Garden Color of flower: Blue, white Height: 2-3′ Spread: 12″ Family: Asteraceae Soil type: Average Soil…

Blue Wood Sedge

Blue Wood Sedge Carex flaccosperma   Description: This narrow-leaf sedge is a good replacement for liriope, which it resembles. Propagation: Divisions in early spring Initial bloom (month and week): May W2 Garden name: Shady Woodland Garden Color of flower: Green Height: 1′ Spread: 1′ Family: Cyperaceae Soil type: Acidic or neutral Soil moisture: Medium moist…

Blue-eyed Grass

Blue-eyed Grass Sisyrinchium angustifolium Description: This adorable tiny iris looks like a grass from its foliage, but close examination of the flower reveals the six petals of an iris. This is a good groundcover in soils that don’t dry out. Shear it back to prevent seeding around where you don’t want it. Propagation: Division or seeds…

Boneset

Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum Description: White flat-topped flowers over deep green leaves that connect at the stem Propagation: Seeds or divisions Initial bloom (month and week): September W2 Garden name: Sunny Wetland Garden Color of flower: White Height: 3-4′ Spread: 24″ Family: Asteraceae Soil type: Woodland edge Soil moisture: Moist or wet Light: Full sun Zone: 4-8

Bottle Gentian

Bottle Gentian Gentiana andrewsii Description: Tight clusters of bottle-shaped flowers visited by bumble bees, which are strong enough to force their way into the closed flowers. Propagation: Divisions, cuttings, seeds Initial bloom (month and week): September W4 Garden name: Sunny Wetland Garden Color of flower: Blue Height: 1-2′ Spread: 12″ Family: Gentianaceae Soil type: Sand,…

Brown-Eyed Susan

Brown-Eyed Susan Rudbeckia triloba Description: A densly branched, hairy, short-lived perennial or biennial, with coarse leaves. Propagation: Self-seeds readily Initial bloom (month and week): August W2 Garden name: Sunny Garden Color of flower: Yellow Height: 20″ Spread: 18″ Family: Asteraceae Soil type: Neutral sandy loam Soil moisture: Medium to dry Light: Sun Zone: 4 –…

Butterfly Weed

Butterfly Weed Asclepias tuberosa Description: The bright orange, clustered flowers attract bees and butterflies. Monarch butterfly caterpillars feed on the leaves and accumulate toxins from its latex sap as a defense strategy. Propagation: From seeds or division of the rhizomatous roots in fall. Initial bloom (month and week): June W4 Garden name: Sunny Garden Color…

Calico Aster

Calico Aster Symphyotrichum lateriflorum   Description: This aster has deep plum foliage with hundreds of small pink and white flowers in September and October. Growing 3’ tall, calico aster is hardy in moist to dry soils. Propagation: Easy from seeds or divisions Initial bloom (month and week): September W2 Garden name: Sunny Garden Color of…

Canada Goldenrod

Canada Goldenrod Solidago canadensis Description: A spreading, aggressive native plant with showy spikes of yellow flowers. Not the plant which provokes hay fever; ragweed does that. Propagation: Seeds and spreads by stolons Initial bloom (month and week): August W4 Garden name: Sunny Garden Color of flower: Yellow Height: 4′ Spread: 6′ Family: Asteraceae Soil type:…

Canada Mayflower

Canada Mayflower Maianthemum canadense   Description: The name is compounded from the Latin Maius (May) and the Greek anthemum (a flower). Where happy it will form a ground cover of exquisite beauty. Like many spring ephemerals, it will disappear by late summer, making it easier to compete with tree roots for soil moisture and nutrients….

Cardinal Flower

Cardinal Flower Lobelia cardinalis Description: A hummingbird magnet, these short-lived perennials make lots of seeds and thus continue where happy for many years Propagation: Seeds Initial bloom (month and week): July W2 Garden name: Sunny Wetland Garden Color of flower: Red Height: 2-5′ Spread: 18″ Family: Campanulaceae Soil type: Sand or loam Soil moisture: Moist…

Carolina Allspice

Carolina Allspice Calycanthus floridus Description: A large, suckering shrub with dark red, fragrant flowers. Propagation: Bare-root or clonal suckers in spring or fall Initial bloom (month and week): June W4 Garden name: Sunny Wetland Garden Color of flower: Maroon Height: 4-6′ Spread: 6′ Family: Calycanthaceae Soil type: Acidic or neutral Soil moisture: Medium moist to wet…

Catmint

Catmint Nepeta x faassenii   Description: A European hybrid, catmint provides early flowers for bees and wasps. Propagation: Seeds or divisions Initial bloom (month and week): May W4 Garden name: Sunny Garden Color of flower: Blue Height: 18″ Spread: 24″ Family: Lamiaceae Soil type: Neutral loam Soil moisture: Dry Light: Full sun Zone: 3 –…

Chives

Chives Allium schoenoprasum   Description: Leaves and flowers in salads, vegetables, poultry, fish, eggs, and butter. Lavender flowers in June. Propagation: Seeds or divisions of the small bulbs Initial bloom (month and week): June W2 Garden name: Sunny Garden Color of flower: Purple Height: 16″ Spread: 12″ Family: Amaryllidaceae Soil type: Neutral Soil moisture: Dry Light:…

Christmas Fern

Christmas Fern Polistichum acrostichoides   AR Plant Model Description: Evergreen fern for neutral woods Propagation: Divide large roots in early spring Initial bloom (month and week):no flower Garden name: Shady Woodland Garden Color of flower: no flower Height: 16″ Spread: 18″ Family: Dryopteridaceae Soil type: Neutral woods Soil moisture: Moist or dry Light: Shade to…

Cinnamon Fern

Cinnamon Fern Osmundastrum cinnamomeum   AR Plant Model Description: The cinnamon-brown fruiting stalks give this fern its name. A large and dramatic fern. Propagation: Spores, or dividing the creeping rhizome Initial bloom (month and week): no flower Garden name: Shady Woodland Garden Color of flower: no flower Height: 3-5′ Spread: 3′ Family: Osmundaceae Soil type: Neutral…

Clustered Mountain Mint

Clustered Mountain Mint Pycnanthemum muticum   Description: This clump-forming  perennial flowers from July to September. When crushed, the leaves produce a spearmint aroma and can be used to make tea. Pollinators love it. Propagation: Division of surface stems Initial bloom (month and week): July W2 Garden name: Sunny Garden Color of flower: White and pink Height:…

Common Blue Violet

Common Blue Violet Viola sororia AR Plant Model Description: This “weed” of lawns is widespread.  An edible native (both flowers and leaves) high in Vitamin C and potassium.  Seeds are cleistogamous, producing seeds underground without pollination.  Pollination of the flower results in normal seeds. Propagation: Seeds, divisions in spring or fall Initial bloom (month and…

Common Camas

Common Camas Camassia quamash Description: The bulbs were an important food among Native Americans, who called it Quamash. Sacajawea, who guided Lewis and Clark, fed the whole party with the roots of this plant. Propagation: Seeds or bulbs, best planted in fall Initial bloom (month and week): May W4 Garden name: Sunny Wetland Garden Color…

Common Milkweed

Common Milkweed Asclepias syriaca Description: Larval host plant for Monarch butterflies Propagation: Seeds Initial bloom (month and week): July W3 Garden name: Sunny Garden Color of flower: Dusty rose Height: 5′ Spread: 6′ Family: Apocynaceae Soil type: Neutral sandy loam Soil moisture: Dry Light: Sun Zone: 3 – 9